According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of adults with type 2 diabetes was 425 million in 2017, and it is expected to hit 649 million by 2045. On a global scale, 12% of the healthcare budget (or $727 billion) is being spent on treating diabetes. The β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at https://www.cofttek.com/product/1094-61-7/ is an intermediate in NAD+ biosynthesis that originated from nicotinamide (NAM). Also it is said produced from phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme (NAMPT).
Being well tolerated, with no reported side effects during long term administration in mice, and preventing age-associated physiological decline, NMN proved to be effective in treating high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes, by reversing mitochondrial dysfunction associated with aging and rescuing the effect of age-associated decline in neural stem cells. Diabetes is a lifelong and continuous disease with continuously growing pervasiveness, increasing the financial burden on comprehensive healthcare operations.
Latterly, the insulin resistance, hallmark of sort 2 diabetes, was restored in mice administered with NAD+ precursor β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), with no poisonous results being published. NAM is usually changed to NMN by enzymes required in the NAD+ salvage pathways, such as NAMPT. The action of this enzyme constitutes the main NAD+ anabolic activity in the cell.
β-NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE (NMN) IN ACTION:
NAM is usually converted to NMN by enzymes involved in the NAD+ salvage pathways, such as NAMPT. The action of this enzyme constitutes the main NAD+ anabolic activity in the cell. The regulation of mammalian or microorganism’s nucleotide metabolism and biosynthesis usually proceeds by consumption of PRPP. PRPP results from ribose-5-phosphate via both oxidative and non-oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway.
In bacteria, NAM is most often transformed into nicotinic acid (NA) by nicotinamidase. It is said to be combined into the Preiss-Handler pathway, this being also the state of Escherichia coli. In mammals, nicotinamidase exercise was not listed; NAM is turned to NMN by one of the NAM phosphoribosyl transferase enzymes preferably. Although most bacteria lack NAM phosphoribosyltransferase, the enzyme is expressed in Haemophilus ducreyi and also Shewanella oneidensis.
Simple and metabolically versatile organisms, such as Escherichia coli, are often used in biotechnology for controlled expression of proteins with desired enzymatic activity. DNA coding for such enzymes is often introduced in bacteria by expression vectors such as the pET system from Novage.
The low cost of the growing media, simple and inexpensive process equipment required may lead to a price reduction of NMN to a level suitable like Resveratrol for treating type 2 diabetes and aging-related diseases in humans.
NMN production reached a maximum of 15.42 mg per L of bacterial culture (or 17.26 mg per gram of protein) in these cells grown in PYA8 medium supplemented with 0.1% NAM and 1% lactose.